Wildlife in Europe
Compared to other continents, Europe's fauna (around 450 nesting bird species
and 140 land mammals) is not very species rich. The Ice Age wiped out all life
in Scandinavia and the British Isles and decimated the fauna of Central
Europe. The Mediterranean, sheltered by the Alps and Pyrenees, retained more of
its fauna. Increased settlement, industrialization and changed agricultural
practices have significantly reduced the habitats of the animals. Several large
mammals such as turkey and tarpan (European wild horse) are extinct and some,
such as. European bison is almost extinct. Other (bear, wolf, Wolverine) is
pushed back to the peripheral areas. Raccoon, Decreasing (American mink), hutia, muskrat and
other ungulates are introduced to Europe, substantially as fur or prey.
The Arctic fauna includes reindeer, polar bears, polar reefs, limbs, mountain
ridge, snowflakes and others. In the forests and mixed forests, among
others, moose, deer, red fox, moths, beavers, squirrels, forest
chickens, owls and woodpeckers live. Wild boar, feral and badger are
characteristic of the deciduous forest region. On the steppes of the Black Sea
and the Balkans live golden jackal, marbled polecat, hamster, sisel (ground
grain), stairs, fallow deer and rose tails. Muflon (wild
sheep), Capricorn, Gem and Alpine marmot are found scattered in the Alps and
mountain regions of Southern Europe. Deer and rabbits belong to the
Mediterranean, but are introduced or spread to large parts of Europe. Thanks to
the warm and favorable climate, many amphibians, snakes, lizards ( chameleons, agams, geckos and lizards )
and land turtles by the Mediterranean.
Only three seal species occur south of Scandinavia: oats and cobbles along
the Atlantic coast and the rare monk seal in the eastern Mediterranean.
Bird life in Central Europe is largely the same as in Scandinavia, but also
includes species that are rare further north,
including glades, quail, turtle, army bird and pirol. Many of our known
ducks, waders and gulls do not breed in southern Europe, but can occur in large
numbers as migratory or winter guests. In contrast, this region may exhibit
several herons, vultures, bees and many singers. The mountain areas in Central
and Southern Europe both have species in common with Scandinavia ( mountain
ridge, woodpecker,ridge ) and their own species (masonry, mountain
spruce (formerly called snow finch), alpine spruce and alpine quay).
Europe - climate
Europe's climate varies from polar climate in the northernmost regions to
temperate climate to subtropical climate in the Mediterranean region. The
rainfall is most evenly distributed throughout the year, but the Mediterranean
area has winter rains.
The polar areas have summer temperatures below 10 °C (average for the
hottest month) and the growing season is so short that only hardy grasses,
mosses and lichens can grow, as well as shrubs such as dwarf birch and polar
arrow. In addition to the Scandinavian mountains and northern Iceland, Norway
and Russia, the highest parts of the Alps and the Pyrenees have polar climates.
Mountains and tundra are replaced in the temperate climate zone by coniferous
forest and the more heat-intensive deciduous forest. The western part of this
climate zone is characterized by air masses from the sea, which provide coastal
climate with relatively cool summers and mild winters. In contrast, Eastern
Europe has a marked mainland climate with hot summers and very cold winters.
In the subtropical zone that surrounds the Mediterranean, rainfall in the
summer is so sparse in relation to the high temperatures that natural plant
growth becomes mahi, which is an evergreen shrub vegetation that can withstand
A part of European Union defined by
Countryaah, Western Europe's weather is characterized by humid air masses with migrating
cyclones (low-pressure systems) that move from the Atlantic across the continent
throughout the year. The cyclones' fronts are responsible for most of the
rainfall that falls steadily throughout the year. The cyclones usually occur in
the summer at Newfoundland and then move close past Iceland in a mostly
northeastern trajectory across Europe. In winter, the cyclones often migrate
farther south and provide winter rain over the Mediterranean.
Eastern Europe is increasingly characterized by continental air masses, which
contribute to the large temperature differences between summer and winter.
Most of Europe has an annual rainfall of between 500 and 1000 mm. Higher
precipitation falls especially on the west-facing coasts and hillsides. This
applies to the Norwegian mountains (Bergen, 2150 mm), Western Scotland and the
coastal parts of the Iberian Peninsula. Areas located on the eastern side of the
mountain ranges receive less rainfall; at least get southern Spain with less
than 250 mm.
In most places, the combination of heat and rainfall in summer is suitable
for arable farming, and irrigation is only necessary on the Mediterranean. In
many places, however, the natural rainfall is supplemented by irrigation; it can
be useful in the recurring situations where stable summer highs over western
Europe can block the cyclone tracks from the Atlantic for several weeks and
Europe - plant life
The coastal areas of the Arctic Ocean in northern Scandinavia and Russia
belong to the species-poor and uniform Arctic tundra region. The
vegetation is dominated by creeping dwarf shrubs, semi-grasses, mosses and
corpses, many with circumpolar distribution. The European part of the boreal
coniferous forest area, the tajga, Scandinavia to the south
includes roughly the Dalälven River, most of Finland as well as much of Russia.
Here spruce and pine forest dominate, and large areas are covered by bogs. The
forest boundary is formed by birch, which in southern Norway reaches up to
approx. 1200 m, in Lapland to approx. 700 m. In the Scandinavian mountain range,
many species have arctic or arctic-alpine distribution; the latter also occur in
the Central European mountains, but are lacking in the intermediate lowlands.
About 30 species are Greenlandic-American and may have survived the ice ages at
refuges in western and northern Norway.
Mixed coniferous and deciduous forest covers southern Sweden roughly to
Skåne, the Baltic States and Belarus. This zone extends southward into the
western and central European deciduous forest area, the nemoral zone
dominated by, among other things, beech, oak, elm and ebony. European deciduous
forests are generally poorer in tree species than similar areas in North America
and East Asia, which is probably a consequence of the short period in which they
have been able to immigrate after the last ice age.
In the Central European mountain regions, i.e. The Alps, the Pyrenees and the
Carpathians are replaced by the deciduous forest by montane coniferous
forest with spruce, pine, European larch and precious fir. Here, the tree
border is often formed by mountain pine and green electricity. Higher up, in the
alpine zone, are flowering meadows with many locally widespread species. in the
bells and the ensians.
Areas from western Norway to Portugal with extreme coastal climate are partly
naturally forested and characterized by heath vegetation, including moorland,
bell species, certain and thorn leaves. Due to the mild winters, there are some
species that are predominantly found in the Mediterranean region, such as
strawberry trees, which are widespread in the north to southern England and
A mosaic of forest steppe forms the transition to the grassy steppes of
Ukraine and southern Russia with a western outlet in the Hungarian Puszta.
The long drought in the wilderness is believed to be the main reason why the
steppe is naturally forestless.
The Mediterranean region forms a clearly defined plant geographic region
characterized by evergreen shrubs, bulbs and tubers as well as many annuals.
Originally, much of the area was covered with pine forest or evergreen oak
forest, which has now largely been turned into scrub: maki and
garrigue. In mountainous regions, the evergreen scrub forest is replaced by
deciduous forest. real chestnut and oak, while pine or noble fir often forms the
In Europe, approx. 12,000 species of seedlings. The Mediterranean countries
are species richest; Spain, Italy and Greece each have more than 5000 species.
Plants with limited local distribution, endemics, are largely missing
north of the Alps, but are numerous on Mediterranean islands and mountains; in
Greece, approx. 740 species endemic to the country.