Other European colonial possessions in Central and South America were less significant. In addition to Belize and the Mosquito Coast, Great Britain claimed the islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Tobago, Barbados and the Bahamas. France fought for Guadeloupe and Martinique and claimed a number of Antilles islands. The Dutch had been in Guyana since the 16th century, and the British had come later. In 1667 England exchanged its claims to Suriname for New Amsterdam in the Netherlands, later New York.
The autonomy of South America was largely the work of the Creole Simón Bolívar, who was born in 1783. The “Libertador” (liberator) urged Venezuela to declare independence in 1810/11. After a long and ultimately victorious struggle against the Spaniards, the general and freedom hero became president of the country in 1819. He united Venezuela and the former New Granada to the Republic of Greater Colombia, to which he joined the liberated Ecuador and Peru. From 1825 he also served as president of Bolivia, liberated in 1824 and named after him, which had previously been part of the Spanish viceroyalty of Buenos Aires. After his attempt to unite the liberated countries failed, Bolívar resigned in 1830. For more information about the continent of South America, please check softwareleverage.org.