Wildlife in Europe
Compared to other continents, Europe’s fauna (around 450 nesting bird species and 140 land mammals) is not very species rich. The Ice Age wiped out all life in Scandinavia and the British Isles and decimated the fauna of Central Europe. The Mediterranean, sheltered by the Alps and Pyrenees, retained more of its fauna. Increased settlement, industrialization and changed agricultural practices have significantly reduced the habitats of the animals. Several large mammals such as turkey and tarpan (European wild horse) are extinct and some, such as. European bison is almost extinct. Other (bear, wolf, Wolverine) is pushed back to the peripheral areas. Raccoon, Decreasing (American mink), hutia, muskrat and other ungulates are introduced to Europe, substantially as fur or prey.
The Arctic fauna includes reindeer, polar bears, polar reefs, limbs, mountain ridge, snowflakes and others. In the forests and mixed forests, among others, moose, deer, red fox, moths, beavers, squirrels, forest chickens, owls and woodpeckers live. Wild boar, feral and badger are characteristic of the deciduous forest region. On the steppes of the Black Sea and the Balkans live golden jackal, marbled polecat, hamster, sisel (ground grain), stairs, fallow deer and rose tails. Muflon (wild sheep), Capricorn, Gem and Alpine marmot are found scattered in the Alps and mountain regions of Southern Europe. Deer and rabbits belong to the Mediterranean, but are introduced or spread to large parts of Europe. Thanks to the warm and favorable climate, many amphibians, snakes, lizards (chameleons, agams, geckos and lizards) and land turtles by the Mediterranean.
Only three seal species occur south of Scandinavia: oats and cobbles along the Atlantic coast and the rare monk seal in the eastern Mediterranean.
Bird life in Central Europe is largely the same as in Scandinavia, but also includes species that are rare further north, including glades, quail, turtle, army bird and pirol. Many of our known ducks, waders and gulls do not breed in southern Europe, but can occur in large numbers as migratory or winter guests. In contrast, this region may exhibit several herons, vultures, bees and many singers. The mountain areas in Central and Southern Europe both have species in common with Scandinavia (mountain ridge, woodpecker,ridge) and their own species (masonry, mountain spruce (formerly called snow finch), alpine spruce and alpine quay).
For area codes and capital city information of each country in Europe, please visit Allcitycodes.
|Country||State condition||Official name|
|Albania||republic, unitary state||Republika ë Shqipërisë / Republiken Albanien|
|Andorra||republic, unitary state||Principality of Andorra / Principality of Andorra|
|Armenia||republic, unitary state||Hayastani Hanrapetutyun / Republic of Armenia|
|Azerbaijan||republic, unitary state||Azerbaijan Republic / Republic of Azerbaijan|
|Belgium||monarchy, federal state||Kingdom of Belgium / Kingdom of Belgium / Kingdom of Belgium / Kingdom of Belgium|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||republic, federal state||Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Bulgaria||republic, unitary state||Republic of Bulgaria / Republic of Bulgaria|
|Cyprus||republic, unitary state||Kypriaki Dimokratiá / Republiken Cypern|
|Denmark||monarchy, unitary state||Kingdom of Denmark|
|Estonia||republic, unitary state||Estonia Vabariik / Republic of Estonia|
|Finland||republic, unitary state||Republic of Finland / Suomen Tasavalta|
|France||republic, unitary state||French Republic / French Republic|
|Georgia||republic, unitary state||Sakartvelo / Georgia|
|Greece||republic, unitary state||Elliniki Dimokratia / Republic of Greece|
|Ireland||republic, unitary state||Ireland / Éire / Irland|
|Iceland||republic, unitary state||Lydveldid Iceland / Republic of Iceland|
|Italy||republic, unitary state||Repubblica Italiana / Republiken Italien|
|Kosovo||republic||Republika e Kosovës / Republika Kosovo / Republiken Kosovo|
|Croatia||republic, unitary state||Republic of Croatia / Republic of Croatia|
|Latvia||republic, unitary state||Republic of Latvia / Republic of Latvia|
|Liechtenstein||monarchy (principality), unitary state||Principality of Liechtenstein / Principality of Liechtenstein|
|Lithuania||republic, unitary state||Lithuanian Republic / Republic of Lithuania|
|Luxembourg||monarchy, unitary state||Grand Duchy of Luxembourg / Grand Duchy of Luxembourg / Grand Duchy of Luxembourg / Grand Duchy of Luxembourg|
|Northern Macedonia||republic, unitary state||Republika Severna Makedonija / Republiken Nordmakedonien|
|Malta||republic, unitary state||Republic of Malta / Republic of Malta|
|Moldova||republic, unitary state||Republic of Moldova / Republic of Moldova|
|Monaco||monarchy (principality), unitary state||Principality of Monaco / Principality of Monaco|
|Montenegro||republic||Crna Gora / Montenegro|
|Netherlands||monarchy, unitary state||Kingdom of the Netherlands / Kingdom of the Netherlands|
|Norway||monarchy, unitary state||Kingdom of Norway / Kingdom of Norway|
|Poland||republic, unitary state||Rzeczpospolita Polska / Republic of Poland|
|Portugal||republic, unitary state||República Portuguesa / Republiken Portugal|
|Romania||republic, unitary state||Romania / Romania|
|Russia||republic, federal state||Russian Federation / Russian Federation|
|San Marino||republic, unitary state||Republic of San Marino / Republic of San Marino|
|Switzerland||republic, federal state||Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft / Conféderation Suisse / Confederazione Svizzera / Confederaziun svizra / Schweiziska edsförbundet|
|Serbia||republic, unitary state||Republika Srbija / Republiken Serbien|
|Slovakia||republic, unitary state||Slovak Republic / Slovak Republic|
|Slovenia||republic, unitary state||Republika Slovenija / Republiken Slovenien|
|Spain||monarchy, unitary state||Kingdom of Spain / Kingdom of Spain|
|UK||monarchy, unitary state||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland / United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Sweden||monarchy, unitary state||Kingdom of Sweden|
|Czech Republic||republic, unitary state||Czech Republic / Czech Republic|
|Turkey||republic, unitary state||Turkey Cumhuriyeti / Republic of Turkey|
|Germany||republic, federal state||Federal Republic of Germany / Federal Republic of Germany|
|Ukraine||republic, unitary state||Republika Ukrajina / Republiken Ukraina|
|Hungary||republic, unitary state||Hungary / Hungary|
|Vatican City State||kyrkostat||Stato della Cittá del Vaticano / Vatikanstaten|
|Belarus||republic, unitary state||Republic of Belarus / Republic of Belarus|
|Austria||republic, federal state||Republic of Austria / Republic of Austria|
Europe – climate
Europe’s climate varies from polar climate in the northernmost regions to temperate climate to subtropical climate in the Mediterranean region. The rainfall is most evenly distributed throughout the year, but the Mediterranean area has winter rains.
The polar areas have summer temperatures below 10 °C (average for the hottest month) and the growing season is so short that only hardy grasses, mosses and lichens can grow, as well as shrubs such as dwarf birch and polar arrow. In addition to the Scandinavian mountains and northern Iceland, Norway and Russia, the highest parts of the Alps and the Pyrenees have polar climates.
Mountains and tundra are replaced in the temperate climate zone by coniferous forest and the more heat-intensive deciduous forest. The western part of this climate zone is characterized by air masses from the sea, which provide coastal climate with relatively cool summers and mild winters. In contrast, Eastern Europe has a marked mainland climate with hot summers and very cold winters.
In the subtropical zone that surrounds the Mediterranean, rainfall in the summer is so sparse in relation to the high temperatures that natural plant growth becomes mahi, which is an evergreen shrub vegetation that can withstand the drought.
A part of European Union defined by Countryaah, Western Europe’s weather is characterized by humid air masses with migrating cyclones (low-pressure systems) that move from the Atlantic across the continent throughout the year. The cyclones’ fronts are responsible for most of the rainfall that falls steadily throughout the year. The cyclones usually occur in the summer at Newfoundland and then move close past Iceland in a mostly northeastern trajectory across Europe. In winter, the cyclones often migrate farther south and provide winter rain over the Mediterranean.
Eastern Europe is increasingly characterized by continental air masses, which contribute to the large temperature differences between summer and winter.
Most of Europe has an annual rainfall of between 500 and 1000 mm. Higher precipitation falls especially on the west-facing coasts and hillsides. This applies to the Norwegian mountains (Bergen, 2150 mm), Western Scotland and the coastal parts of the Iberian Peninsula. Areas located on the eastern side of the mountain ranges receive less rainfall; at least get southern Spain with less than 250 mm.
In most places, the combination of heat and rainfall in summer is suitable for arable farming, and irrigation is only necessary on the Mediterranean. In many places, however, the natural rainfall is supplemented by irrigation; it can be useful in the recurring situations where stable summer highs over western Europe can block the cyclone tracks from the Atlantic for several weeks and cause drought.
Europe – plant life
The coastal areas of the Arctic Ocean in northern Scandinavia and Russia belong to the species-poor and uniform Arctic tundra region. The vegetation is dominated by creeping dwarf shrubs, semi-grasses, mosses and corpses, many with circumpolar distribution. The European part of the boreal coniferous forest area, the tajga, Scandinavia to the south includes roughly the Dalälven River, most of Finland as well as much of Russia. Here spruce and pine forest dominate, and large areas are covered by bogs. The forest boundary is formed by birch, which in southern Norway reaches up to approx. 1200 m, in Lapland to approx. 700 m. In the Scandinavian mountain range, many species have arctic or arctic-alpine distribution; the latter also occur in the Central European mountains, but are lacking in the intermediate lowlands. About 30 species are Greenlandic-American and may have survived the ice ages at refuges in western and northern Norway.
Mixed coniferous and deciduous forest covers southern Sweden roughly to Skåne, the Baltic States and Belarus. This zone extends southward into the western and central European deciduous forest area, the nemoral zone dominated by, among other things, beech, oak, elm and ebony. European deciduous forests are generally poorer in tree species than similar areas in North America and East Asia, which is probably a consequence of the short period in which they have been able to immigrate after the last ice age.
In the Central European mountain regions, i.e. The Alps, the Pyrenees and the Carpathians are replaced by the deciduous forest by montane coniferous forest with spruce, pine, European larch and precious fir. Here, the tree border is often formed by mountain pine and green electricity. Higher up, in the alpine zone, are flowering meadows with many locally widespread species. in the bells and the ensians.
Areas from western Norway to Portugal with extreme coastal climate are partly naturally forested and characterized by heath vegetation, including moorland, bell species, certain and thorn leaves. Due to the mild winters, there are some species that are predominantly found in the Mediterranean region, such as strawberry trees, which are widespread in the north to southern England and Ireland.
A mosaic of forest steppe forms the transition to the grassy steppes of Ukraine and southern Russia with a western outlet in the Hungarian Puszta. The long drought in the wilderness is believed to be the main reason why the steppe is naturally forestless.
The Mediterranean region forms a clearly defined plant geographic region characterized by evergreen shrubs, bulbs and tubers as well as many annuals. Originally, much of the area was covered with pine forest or evergreen oak forest, which has now largely been turned into scrub: maki and garrigue. In mountainous regions, the evergreen scrub forest is replaced by deciduous forest. real chestnut and oak, while pine or noble fir often forms the forest boundary.
In Europe, approx. 12,000 species of seedlings. The Mediterranean countries are species richest; Spain, Italy and Greece each have more than 5000 species. Plants with limited local distribution, endemics, are largely missing north of the Alps, but are numerous on Mediterranean islands and mountains; in Greece, approx. 740 species endemic to the country.