Marshall Islands. According to Countryaah, severe drought caused the authorities in the Marshall Islands to impose disaster conditions on the northern islands and atolls in April. It rains less in the north than in the other parts of the island nation, and lack of rain causes the drinking water to run out as about 90% of the fresh water in the country comes from rain. In addition to lowering freshwater reserves, salt levels in the water taken from wells increased.
The US State Department warned in June that the Marshall Islands have become a target for sex trafficking and put the country on an international watch list. According to the US Foreign Ministry’s report, the country had become a target for women from East Asia who are subjected to trafficking. The United States said that the Marshall Islands government had done nothing to prevent trafficking or to help victims, and now called on the government to take action. The Marshall Islands government responded a few days later that the US data was “completely baseless”.
In early September, leaders of 14 Pacific countries met at Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands to discuss climate issues. The country’s representatives signed the Majuro Declaration, taking on leadership on climate issues, but also demanding urgent action by the rest of the world to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow down climate change.
At the end of the month, Marshall Islands President Christopher Loeak presented the Mayor Declaration, also signed by Australia and New Zealand, to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon. The Pacific nations want to get an international legally binding climate agreement through the UN until 2015. They have also previously, in vain, demanded binding climate agreement.
Demography and economic geography. – Island state of Oceania, in the west-central Pacific. At the 2011 census the population was 53,158 residents, More than half residing in the capital, Majuro; in 2014, according to an estimate by UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), it was 52,772 residents. The country’s economy is heavily dependent on foreign aid (41.8% of GDP in 2012), particularly from the United States, as envisaged by the Compact of free association for the period 2004-24. Access to health services is guaranteed only for 84% of the urban population and for 55.5% of the rural population; unemployment in 2006 was 36%.
History. – At the turn of the first decade of the 21st century, the Marshall Islands continued to face the absence of a wide-ranging national policy, the limited economic growth, the deterioration of relations with the United States, opposed to satisfying the requests for further compensation for nuclear tests of 1946-58.
In 2007, the Ms undertook to ensure greater transparency in the banking sector and were removed from the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) from the list of non-cooperative tax havens. In the same year, the elections were won by the party coalition Aelon Kein Ad (Our Islands, AKA), representing the interests of the landowners of the atolls, who objected to the US use of the Kwajalein missile base.
In January 2008, the tribal leader Litokwa Tomeing was elected president who, severely contested in Parliament for his handling of disputes with the United States, was forced to resign in October 2009. Initially replaced by Jurelang Zedkaia, in 2012 he was later appointed president of the Republic Christopher J. Loeak. Denouncing an alleged violation of international obligations on the cessation of the nuclear arms race and on nuclear disarmament, in April 2014 the Marshall Islands sued nine countries before the International Court of Justice: China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, Russia and the United States. Of these, only India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom have recognized the Court’s mandatory jurisdiction over legal matters affecting them.