Tibetan Buddhism, developed in the West and (still) in use, the name Lamaism, derived from the late Indian forms of Buddhism ( Mahayana, Vajrayana) in Tibet emerged form of Buddhism; is widespread today in addition to Tibet in Bhutan, Nepal, the Himalayan region of India (Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Ladakh]), Mongolia, northern China (Inner Mongolia) and Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia and Tuva). In its origins going back to the 7th century, Tibetan Buddhism received its decisive influence from Vajrayana Buddhism (also Mantrayana, Tantrayana or esoteric Buddhism). In his religious practice he also included pre-Buddhist popular religious elements such as B. the conjuring of local spirits and deities, which he integrated as low-ranking protectors into his pantheon (Bon religion). Tibetan Buddhism – like Buddhism in general – is carried by monasteries and, in the course of its history, has developed various schools with its own hierarchical organizational structure, exegetical tradition and its own monasteries with special protective deities as well as preferred meditation practice due to different teaching traditions. The importance of more than 4,500 works of Buddhist Indian literature translated into Tibetan results from the loss of a large part of the Sanskrit originals. The Tibetan canon, consisting of Kangyur and Tengyur (Tandschur and Kandschur), is thus one of the most important sources for researching Buddhism in general. Tibetan scholars commented on canonical literature according to their respective schooling and developed the philosoph. Concepts slightly further. In addition, independent forms of meditation and ritual practice emerged. According to nonprofitdictionary.com, the great political influence that some schools gained through close ties with powerful Tibetan aristocratic families or with Mongol rulers ultimately led to a theocracy with the Dalai Lama, the highest-ranking representative of the Gelugpa school, as the spiritual and secular head of Tibet from the 17th century Century. Due to the key role of the Lama as an indispensable guide on the tantric path of salvation and its exaltation to the Tulku and the embodiment of a Buddha or Bodhisattva, Tibetan Buddhism is also called Lamaism in the West, a term that the 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso) rejects as inappropriate.
Teaching: 1) The monks and nuns of all Tibetan schools follow the religious discipline (Pali and Sanskrit “Vinaya”) of the Indian monastic order of the Mulasarvastivadin, which does not differ significantly from the rules of the order (Vinayapitaka) already established in Hinayana Buddhism. 2) The philosophical foundations of Tibetan Buddhism come from Mahayana Buddhism, more precisely the Madhyamika school of Nagarjuna (2nd – 3rd century) and the Yogacara school of Asanga (4th century; Vijnanavada). The basic idea is the relativity, yes “emptiness” of all beings. According to this, the world of appearances is reproduced either entirely without substance or from an “all-consciousness”. This very abstract view of being should lead to the detachment from the superficial reality and thus to the abolition of suffering. The necessary complement to this “ontology” is the “doctrine of redemption” of the Mahayana, the all-encompassing compassion that culminates in the Bodhisattva ideal: the perfect person renounces his entry into nirvana until the last living being is redeemed. These two seemingly opposite poles, the doctrines of emptiness and salvation, are attempted to bridge in the “perfection of knowledge” (described in the Prajnaparamita texts). 3) The mystical-ritual realization of the aforementioned ideals comes from the Tantras of Vajrayana. The attainment of Buddhahood should be accelerated through secret psycho-physical meditation and yoga techniques. It is about the direct experience of Buddha-nature, which is common to all beings, but is initially hidden under veils. It can be made conscious through tantric techniques. Passions and emotions do not have to be suppressed, but can be used positively under the guidance of a spiritual teacher (lama). The countless deities of the Tibetan pantheon symbolize Buddha aspects or qualities that oppose a wide range of attitudes that cause suffering on the part of the adepts. Yidam), with which the adept should gradually identify. At the highest level of tantra, it is summoned down and takes place in its mandala. After the adept has identified with her and then created her in front of him, she is released again. The regular implementation of this process should gradually remove the polarization of thinking in subject and object and bring about a transformation of inner traits into a connection of wisdom and love, which enables tolerance and social behavior. In this way one achieves a liberated and thus loving and life-affirming awareness, which is to be equated with enlightenment. The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, the patron saint of Tibet, the Bodhisattva, are among the most revered deities Manjushri and Buddha Amitabha, which symbolize infinite compassion, wisdom and infinite life. Tibetan Buddhism is an outspoken monastic religion in which lay people, unless they are yogis, only act indirectly. Because of their lower mental faculties, all that remains for them is the hope of improving their karma, the fruit of their deeds, in a later life. Their religious activity therefore essentially consists in amassing virtues by giving gifts to the monks and the poor, making pilgrimages, converting shrines into rituals, lighting and offering sacrifices to lamps in front of the images of the deities, and soliciting blessings from lamas.