Rwanda Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Rwanda is 12,712,431, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 12,712,431
Population growth rate 2.00%
Birth rate 30.70 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall life expectancy 58.85 years
Men life expectancy 57.34 years
Women life expectancy 60.40 years
Age structure
0-14 years 40.98%
15-64 years 56.53%
65 years and above 2.49%
Median age 18.80 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.99
Population density 482.67 residents per km²
Urbanization 18.30%
85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi, 1% Twa (so-called pygmies)
Catholics (Roman Catholic) 56.5%, Protestants 26%, Adventists 11.1%, Muslims 1.9%, indigenous religions 0.1%, non-denominational 1.7% [2001]
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.536
HDI ranking 157th out of 194

People in Rwanda

Around 12.3 million people live in Rwanda, spread over 26,338 square kilometers. The population density in the small country is very high. By the way, 42 out of 100 people are under 14 years old and only a few live to be older than 65 years.

Who are Hutu, Tutsi and Twa?

84 out of 100 residents of Rwanda are Hutu, 15 out of 100 are Tutsi and one in 100 are Twa. These are the residents of the country who have lived there the longest. But today we no longer differentiate between them, because the division into Hutu and Tutsi had dire consequences and culminated in civil war in 1994. In fact, the differences between Huti and Tutsi were very small. This division was made by the colonial powers. Even if there were always conflicts before, the social classification of the Belgians in 1934 once again emphasized the differences between Hutu and Tutsi and was one of the prerequisites for the later civil war.

At that time, all families with more than ten cattle were counted as Tutsi. They were considered to be cattle breeders. Those who owned less were divided among the Hutu, who were considered farmers. Whoever had no beef was a Twa. Since Rwanda was a poor country and not that many families actually had more than ten cattle, the Hutu, with the few cattle, were far in the majority. This division would prove to be a fateful decision decades later, because Hutu and Tutsi fought violently. You can find out more about this in history and politics.

This division has been canceled today, there are only the residents of Rwanda, but you can hear the old terms again and again and the traces of the civil war are still noticeable, even if you try very hard to emphasize the commonalities of the people and not them Differences.

Most Rwandans live in the countryside. Only 29 out of 100 residents live in a city.

Many women have three to four children, so the population is growing rapidly. However, this is offset by the low life expectancy of people. Many children die very young and many people die of AIDS, which is widespread in Rwanda, along with other diseases.

Languages in Rwanda

Most Rwandans speak the Bantu language, Kinyarwanda. 88 out of 100 Rwandans speak Kinyarwanda as their mother tongue.

The official languages ​​are English and French. In the meantime, English is increasingly being taught as a foreign language in schools and less French. Incidentally, this comes from the Belgians who administered the country. The administration has now also switched to English. This means that important official documents are no longer written in French, but in English.

Religions in Rwanda

Most of the Rwandans are Christians. Most of them – about 55 out of 100 – are Catholic. 38 out of 100 are Protestants who split up into different faiths. But there are also local religions and a few Muslims.

Rwanda Overview

Rwanda, located in East Africa, is renowned for its remarkable transformation following the tragic genocide in 1994. Despite its turbulent history, Rwanda has emerged as a beacon of progress and reconciliation, celebrated for its stunning natural beauty, including the majestic Virunga Mountains and lush rainforests teeming with biodiversity. The country is famous for its efforts in conservation, particularly in protecting endangered mountain gorillas, and for its ambitious development initiatives aimed at fostering economic growth and social harmony.

  • Capital City: Kigali
  • Population: Approximately 12.6 million
  • Area: 26,338 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Republic of Rwanda
  • Currency: Rwandan Franc (RWF)
  • Language: Kinyarwanda, English, French
  • ISO Country Codes: RW, RWA

Bordering Countries of Rwanda

Rwanda is a small landlocked country in Central Africa, bordered by Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, Burundi to the south and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west. It has a total area of 26,338 square kilometers and a population of around 12 million people.

To the north of Rwanda lies Uganda, which is a country with an area of 236,040 square kilometers and a population of around 41 million people. It is well known for its natural beauty and its vibrant culture. The capital city is Kampala and it borders Rwanda on Lake Victoria as well as on several mountain ranges including the Rwenzori Mountains and Mount Elgon.

Tanzania lies directly east of Rwanda with an area just over 945 thousand square kilometers making it one of Africa’s largest countries; Dodoma is Tanzania’s capital city while other major cities include Dar es Salaam among others; Tanzania has a population estimated at around 56 million people. Its landscape features lowlands in the north near Lake Victoria as well as highlands in the south near Malawi including Mount Kilimanjaro which makes for some great outdoor recreational activities for tourists visiting this beautiful country.


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