Norway. The year marked a historic political regime
change. According to
Countryaah, the Progress Party came into office for the first
time, in a coalition with Høyre, since the red-green
government lost the parliamentary elections in September.
Right, led by Erna Solberg, at the beginning of the year
was so successful in opinion that the party alone would have
become as large in parliament as the three coalition parties
in Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg's government. But
sympathies changed during the year.
In March, the Stoltenberg government presented a new
contingency plan against terrorism as a result of the lack
of preparedness in connection with the terrorist attacks in
Oslo and Utøya in 2011. Among other things, a new national
police station in Oslo was proposed, and preparedness
against terror would receive SEK 100 million in increased
At the national meeting in April, the Labor Party found
it difficult to agree on the issue of oil recovery in the
Arctic Ocean, where the youth union was opposed. The
compromise became an environmental impact study on oil
recovery in sensitive Arctic waters. The disagreement was at
least as great in the government, where the Socialist Left
Party and the Center Party said no to oil extraction in the
Arctic Ocean and also rejected environmental impact studies.
This summer's election campaign was a battle between the
bourgeois parties' criticism of deteriorating school
outcomes, poor healthcare and poor roads, and the
coalition's descriptions of a more stable economy than in
the euro zone and higher employment than in the EU. The
government warned of bourgeois privatizations in welfare,
especially in healthcare.
The parliamentary election became a triumph for Høyre and
party leader Erna Solberg. Høyre made his best parliamentary
choice in nearly three decades and went from 30 to 48 seats
in the Storting, and the bourgeois parties received a
majority of 96 seats against the red-green 72. Høyre's
success, however, came at the expense of the Progress Party,
which declined from 41 to 29 mandate. The Labor Party
remained the largest party but declined from 64 to 55 seats.
The Socialist Left Party just took over the four percent
barrier to the Storting, and the third coalition partner
Senterpartiet got a little over a percent more. The
environmental party De Grønne entered the Storting for the
first time, but with only one mandate, after success in
In the bourgeois coalition negotiations, the central
parties Venstre and Christian People's Party stood alongside
the government but supported it. This meant that the Høyre
and Fremskrittspartiet formed a minority coalition with tax
cuts, reduced bureaucracy, increased competitiveness, better
schooling and stricter immigration policy as important parts
of the government program. Erna Solberg became prime
minister and Progress Party leader Siv Jensen new finance
minister. One item that was removed from the government was
the Minister for Development Cooperation.
When Stoltenberg handed over to Solberg, he received
accolades from her for the role he played in the national
grief work after the terrorist attacks in 2011. At the same
time, the ideological differences were great, and from the
left the feelings of the Progress Party's entry into the
government swelled. The outgoing Prime Minister Stoltenberg
described the new coalition as "right to right".
The new government parties had gone to elections for
better schools, shorter queues in care and care and better
infrastructure. The Progress Party wanted to take resources
for this through increased withdrawals from the state oil
fund, but Høyre slowed down there. In its amendments to the
budget, the new government presented, among other things,
tax cuts and reduced student support.
The mainland economy was expected to grow by 2.5% in
2013. The value of the central government's oil fund rose to
approximately SEK 4,900 billion in November, making it one
of the world's largest investors. Philanthropist and
Microsoft founder Bill Gates at the end of the year urged
Norway to use more of the Fund's funds for infrastructure in
sub-Saharan Africa, in Asia, and in small businesses that
can improve agriculture and health care. Former Prime
Minister Jens Stoltenberg was named UN Special Climate Envoy
in December with the task of working for a comprehensive
global climate agreement 2015.
Transport in Norway
Norway's extent and topography entail large costs for the
development and maintenance of the transport lines.
Transport was based on maritime transport until the latter
half of the 19th century when railway construction began,
and part of the traffic gradually shifted from sea to land.
Developments in passenger traffic have been characterized by
the car and the aircraft from the 1900s.
In passenger transport, road and air transport have had a
significant increase at the expense of sea and rail
transport. For the transport of goods, the transition from
sea transport to road in particular has been noticeable.
Domestic freight transport (calculated in tonnes km) is
distributed in 2007 with 46% on sea transport, 47% on road
transport and 7% on rail. 79% of passenger transport
(calculated in passenger jets) is by car, 6% by bus, 2% by
motorcycle / moped, 6% by air, 5% by rail / suburban
railways and 2% by boat.
The roadways built from the 1600s to the far 1800s were
mostly fragile and useless for much of the year. Maintenance
responsibility lay on the farmers in the district. The road
laws have gradually established the public responsibility
for the road system, and in 1931 the current division of
responsibilities between the state, counties and
municipalities came in national, county and rural roads
(later municipal roads). The total public road length in
2008 was approx. 92,900 km (29.4% national roads, 29.2%
county roads and 41.4% municipal roads); of this is approx.
0.3% freeway. By the way, there are approx. 126 000 km of
Parallel to an ever-growing car park, there is a great
deal of effort to greatly improve the road standard itself,
for example. laying of fixed deck, increase in axle
pressure, bridge and tunnel systems. Practically the entire
national highway network and the majority of the county road
network have a fixed tire, while almost the entire national
highway network and around half of the county roads are
prepared for 10 tonnes of axle load. A number of major road
projects have been implemented since 1980, especially with a
view to mainland connection using bridges and tunnels.
Construction of pedestrian and bicycle paths has also been a
priority area since 1980.
Increased awareness of the transport sector's, and
especially the car's, negative impact on the environment -
both locally and globally - has led to the development of
new technology in the cars, measures to reduce car use and
the development / development of alternative means of
transport. In 1989, exhaust gas requirements were introduced
for new gasoline-powered passenger cars that have led to a
reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon
monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds. Fee for carbon
dioxide emissions (CO 2)) on fuel was introduced
in 1992. In 1996, a new tax system for cars was introduced,
so that new cars are more expensive the more they pollute.
Models are also being worked on that will allow each
motorist to pay the costs he / she incurs on other road
users and the community (see road pricing).
Shuttle services play a special role on short distances.
However, from the mid-1980s a network of long-distance
routes has also been built up. Previously, these were
reserved for railless areas (eg Bergen-Trondheim), but the
express routes now also operate routes covered by rail. From
1988, much of the express bus traffic was collected under
the name Nor-Way Bus Express.
The first railway was opened in 1854 and for almost 100
years there was a more or less continuous development of the
line network. The Norwegian railway network is 2008 at 4114
km. The network was at its longest in 1957 (4498 km); many
small side lanes have subsequently been closed down, in some
lanes only freight traffic is operated. Since the 1950s,
more and more lines have been converted to electrical
operation (2552 km 2008). Both passenger and freight traffic
remained fairly stable during the 1980s and 1990s, but on
the passenger side the "market share" has dropped
significantly, since overall passenger transport has
In 1996, the Norwegian State Railways were divided into
the transport company NSB BA (now NSB AS) and the National
Rail Administration, which is responsible for rail and other
Oslo was the first Norwegian city to receive a tramway
(1875, horse tramway), and also got the first electric
tramway in the country (1894). Later, Bergen (1897, closed
1965, Bybanen AS opened a new route in 2010) and Trondheim
(1901, closed 1988, resumed under the auspices of AS
Graakallbanen in 1990). Oslo has the country's only metro
Passenger traffic has shown very strong growth, and it
was only quadrupled in the period 1980-2008. Freight
transport is negligible when you disregard mail. Western
Norway and Northern Norway in particular were well developed
with airports in the 1970s, and in 2005, the country had 46
airports with civilian call routes.
The domestic network was previously dominated by SAS,
Braathens SAFE and Widerøes Flyveselskap, but after SAS took
over both Braathens and Widerøe in 2002, thanks to the
airline Norwegian Air Shuttle, which started domestic
flights this year, there is still competition for air
transport in Norway. From 1993, all airlines in the EU / EEA
area have free competition on flights to and from Norway. In
1995, free competition was introduced on the domestic
national grid network for Norwegian airlines and a new
company, Color Air, started 1998 scheduled services.
Operations were in deficit and were canceled already the
Norway is ranked as the world's fourth largest shipping
country and is the country with the highest share of the
fleet under its own flag among the traditional shipping
countries, with a total tonnage of 16.8 million gross tonnes.
This is largely due to the establishment of the Norwegian
International Ship Register (NIS) in 1987. The NIS fleet
reached its peak in 1991 with 870 ships, but has since
declined and was at the end of 2007 on 565 ships. In the
Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register (NOR), 749 ships were
registered in 2007. The registers were co-located to Bergen
Coastal traffic is of great importance in many areas, but
road construction, increased passenger numbers and air
traffic have led to a sharp decline in passenger numbers,
except for ferries. The most important coastal route is the
Bergen – Kirkenes express route. Fast-moving boat types,
especially catamarans, have revolutionized the traffic
pattern in many places, especially along the west coast and
the Trondelag coast. There are still many highway
connections with car ferries. On each ferry connection,
traffic increases in line with other car traffic, but more
and more ferry connections are being replaced by new road
projects that include bridges or tunnels.
The Ministry of Transport and Communications has the
administrative responsibility for the transport sector in
Norway, including post and telecommunications.
Administrative bodies outside the Ministry include the
Norwegian Public Roads Administration with the Norwegian
Road Directorate, Avinor, the Norwegian Post and
Telecommunications Authority and the Norwegian National Rail
Authority. The latter two came into being in the 1990s when
the state's own management companies in the post,
telecommunications and railways were released in joint stock
companies or special law companies.
The municipal and county authorities are responsible for
the design of the local public service. Nevertheless, the
state has entered into grants for the development of public
infrastructure in the largest urban areas, which has led to
such measures being prioritized across the different levels