According to Countryaah, there are 14 countries in Oceania. The biggest countries are Australia and New Zealand.
No animal groups are particularly characteristic of Oceania; however, the spread of the butterfly group Aglossata is limited to part of this area (Fiji and Vanuatu) as well as Australia. New Guinea and other large islands NE of Australia have very rich fauna with Australian and Oriental relations, see Wallace’s line; especially noteworthy are the two species of ant hedgehogs (see sewerage animals) found in New Guinea. See also abbreviations of Australia and New Zealand on AbbreviationFinder.org.
The species richness of the smaller islands of Oceania depends to a large extent on whether the islands are of continental origin or are oceanic without ever having been connected to the mainland (volcanic and coral islands). Continental islands are most often species rich and harbor many endemic species or groups. Oceanic islands are generally poor in species and usually lack non-flying vertebrates; however, there may be a significant feature of endemic invertebrates such as banana flies in Hawaii.
Wildlife in the islands of Oceania is an exemplary pattern of distribution patterns dictated by isolation and size (see island biogeography): the more isolated, the fewer species. The Solomon Islands thus have 127 species of native land birds, New Caledonia 77, Fiji 54, Samoa 33, the Company Islands of French Polynesia 17, and Henderson Island at Pitcairn 1, while Easter Island has none at all.
Wildlife in Australia
Animal Geographical hear Australia to the Australian region, which also includes New Zealand, New Guinea and the Pacific islands. Sewage animals, found only in this region, are represented by two species: mammals and ant swine. They lay eggs and are considered the most primitive of the mammals.
|Country||State condition||Official name|
|Australia||monarchy, federal state||Commonwealth of Australia / Australian Commonwealth|
|Fiji||republic, unitary state||Matanitu Ko Viti / Republic of Fiji|
|Kiribati||republic, unitary state||Ribaberikin Kiribati / Republic of Kiribati|
|Marshall Islands||republic, unitary state||Majõl / Republic of the Marshall Islands / Republiken Marshallöarna|
|Micronesia Federation||republic, federal state||The Federated States of Micronesia|
|Nauru||republic, unitary state||Republic of Nauru / Republic of Nauru|
|New Zealand||monarchy, unitary state||New Zealand / New Zealand|
|Palau||republic, federal state||Republic of Palau / Belu’u era Belau / Republiken Palau|
|Papua New Guinea||monarchy, unitary state||Independent State of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea|
|Solomon Islands||monarchy, unitary state||Solomon Islands|
|Samoa||monarchy, unitary state||Malo Sa’oloto Tuto’atasi o Samoa / Independent State of Samoa|
|Tonga||monarchy, unitary state||Pule’anga Fakatu’i’o Tonga / Kingdom of Tonga / Konungariket Tonga|
|Tuvalu||monarchy, unitary state||Tuvalu|
|Vanuatu||republic||Ripablik blong Vanuatu / Republiken Vanuatu|
The marsupials, which are otherwise only found in America, are the dominant mammals in Australia. They comprise about 160 species distributed among a number of families, including predators, marsupials and purse sharks, cousins and purse seines, avian grains, kangaroos, koala and wombats. Many marsupials are small and nocturnal, but some of the kangaroos, such as the red and gray giant kangaroo, are the continent’s largest and most conspicuous land mammal species.
The more advanced placental mammals, which dominate the mammalian fauna in all other continents, are represented in Australia only by rodents of 69 species, bats with twelve species of large and 64 species of small bats, seals with ten species in the south, the sea cow dugong in the north and whales, where 44 of the world’s 80 species are registered in Australian waters. The dingo is a wild dog that probably came to Australia with the native inhabitants.
The Europeans introduced, among other things, rabbit and fox, to the detriment of the agricultural industry and the often defenseless marsupials respectively. In recent years, the authorities have gained some control over the growing rabbit population through fencing, traps, toxic bait and especially the viral disease myxomatosis.
At least 600 of the more than 780 bird species observed in Australia breed here. Most are native birds, but some, including cuckoo, spend the cold season in New Guinea. The ostrich- like emu is found throughout most of Australia except for Tasmania and densely populated areas. Among Australia’s most well-known and beloved birds is the Laughing Coca-Burr, formerly known as the Laughing Bird, which is a giant iceberg. Furthermore, the tails, known as the best imitators of the bird world, as well as the black swan, whistleblower and park cutter.
The honeybees are found in all kinds of biotopes, and many of the 65 species play an important role in pollination and seed dispersal in the local flora. Australia has more than 50 species of parrot birds, including yellow cockatoo, rose cockatoo, nymph cockatoo, formerly known as nymph parakeet, rainbow laurel, budgerigar and rosella. The well-known zebra cage bird is also of Australian origin.
The delta crocodile can be over six meters long and is Australia’s largest reptile. It is most common along the coast in the north, but can swim up into the rivers and sometimes kill people. The significantly smaller Australian crocodile is harmless. Among the more than 350 lizard species, there are many bizarre forms, including the collagen, the molo and the varanas, popularly called “goannas”.
Australia has 110 species of snakes, of which a considerable proportion are dangerous to humans. Eight or nine of the world’s ten most poisonous snake species live in Australia. The tiger snake, brown snakes, death snake and taipan are especially feared.
There are at least 120 frog species in Australia, but no salamanders – and the only toad, the agapad, is imported from America. It can be 20 cm long and is so toxic that birds and marsupials that eat it often have to cope with life.
The insect fauna comprises more than 80,000 species. Many of the around 4000 ant species are very aggressive, such as “bull ants” and “jumper ants”. Termites are also numerous. The termite mounds can be several meters high and are a characteristic part of the landscape of the plains in the north.
The spider fauna is not as well studied as the insects, but poisonous tunnel spiders and black widows are well known and feared. Of other toxic animals, mention should be made of cube jellyfish or sea wasps, which have caused death among bathers.
3400 species of fish, about 25 percent of all the world’s saltwater fish, occur in Australian waters.
Cook Islands yearbook 2009
Cook Islands. In April, the Cook Islands government turned to the special UN Commission CLCS to expand the region’s internationally recognized continental shelf by 400,000 km². The seabed around the islands is believed to be rich in minerals, especially manganese (brownstone). In July, Prime Minister Jim Marurai dismissed his Foreign Minister Wilkie Rasmussen and took over the post himself. Later in the month the post went on to Sir Terepai Maoate.
In November, Cook Islands High Commissioner Tia Barrett passed away. Nicola Ngawati was appointed new Deputy High Commissioner the same month. The turbulence in the Cook Islands political leadership continued in December when Sir Terepai Maoate was suddenly fired from his posts as Finance, Foreign and Deputy Prime Minister. Robert Wigmore was appointed new Deputy Prime Minister, while Prime Minister Marurai himself took over as Foreign and Finance Minister. Three other ministers resigned in protest against the dismissal of Maoate.
Cook Islands yearbook 2007
Cook Islands. The World Health Organization WHO came in February with a report showing that the Pacific region has the fattest population in the world. Among the ten fattest populations in the world, eight were found in the South Sea. Cook Islands ended up in the absolute top tier, with 90 percent of residents being overweight or obese. The fattest nation was Nauru with 94 percent overweight or obese among the residents.
Too much imported fast food and too little exercise are the main causes of the obesity epidemic in the South Sea according to WHO, which warned of health risks such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Cook Islands yearbook 2006
Cook Islands. When the ruling Democratic Party (DP) lost a parliamentary mandate in a June general election, the Cook Islands government announced a new election. The election was held in September and won by DP, which received fourteen seats against nine seats for the opposition Cook Islands Party (CIP). DP could thus continue to govern the country with renewed confidence.
Cook Islands yearbook 2005
Cook Islands. During four weeks in February – March, four powerful cyclones swept over Cook Islands, causing major material damage. In the spring, Cook Islands was removed from the international list of territories that have too weak laws against international money laundering. In September, government cooperation broke out between the two large parties of the territory, Cook Islands First (CIF) and Cook Islands Party (CIP). CIP ministers were replaced by members of Prime Minister Jim Marurai’s own party CIF.