Romania. According to Countryaah, Romania’s economy was under severe pressure at the beginning of the year. The EU’s second poorest country struggled with close enough stagnant growth and a currency under strong pressure. Prime Minister Victor Ponta’s social liberal government, which took office just before New Year, negotiated in January for an extension of the IMF credit that would expire in March.
Negotiations for a new loan agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) followed, in which the government promised partial sales of state-owned companies, including in the gas and nuclear power industry as well as the mining industry. The goal was to get the equivalent of about SEK 3 billion. In July, a new agreement was signed with the IMF, which guaranteed EUR 4 billion in credit for two years.
During the spring, the government proposed a bill to compensate those who lost property in confiscation during the communist era. The outstanding claims on the state amounted to the equivalent of more than SEK 50 billion. Unclear laws, bureaucracy and corruption had driven many Romanians to submit their claims to the European Court of Justice, which requested new Romanian legislation. The opposition opposed the government’s proposal and took the law to the Constitutional Court for review.
The European Court of Justice issued another ruling during the year, in which the Romanian government was ordered to pay damages to the relatives of the 72 people killed in the city of Timișoara in the uprising against the 1989 Céșescure regime. The project had been delayed for years in anticipation of environmental permits, but the government decided to speed up the process in the hope that gold mining would provide euro billions in tax money and new jobs to an economically pressured region.
However, there was strong resistance to the mining project, which would destroy four mountain peaks and eradicate villages in the area. Opponents warned of an ecological disaster through the use of cyanide in gold mining. The government’s decision was met by weeks-long protests, and Parliament’s decision on permitting for the mining project was postponed until November. At that time, an overwhelming majority in the Senate voted against the mining project. The company Gabriel Resources had worked for 14 years to get a permit and invested very large sums in the project.
During the year, Romania received criticism from the European Security and Cooperation Organization (OSCE) regarding freedom of expression. The Constitutional Court ruled in April that so-called slander and defamation in the media is prosecutable and can be punished.
The fight against political corruption went on. The Deputy Prime Minister was indicted for electoral fraud in connection with last year’s referendum on national law for the President, the Minister of Transport was sentenced to five years in prison for cheating the state of EUR 1.7 million, and one of the founders of the Conservative Party was also sentenced to five years in prison. a. for financial crime.
In August, the former dictator Ceaușescu’s execution site was opened as a tourist attraction. The military base where Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena were shot in 1989 became available to visitors, who can see the room where the provisional trial was held as well as the wall where the execution took place.
In the 2014 budget, the government decided, among other things, to raise the minimum wage from 800 lei (about SEK 1,600) to 900 lei.
Area: 238,391 km2 (world rank: 81)
Population density: 82 per km2 (as of 2017, world rank: 59)
Capital: Bucuresti (Bucharest)
Official languages: Romanian
Gross domestic product: 187.9 billion euros; Real growth: 6.9%
Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 9970 US$
Currency: 1 Leu (l) = 100 Bani
66, 10117 Berlin
Telephone 030 21239202,
Fax 030 21239399
Head of State: Klaus Iohannis, Head of Government: Viorica Dancila, Exterior: Teodor Viorel Melescanu
National holiday: 1.12.
41 districts and capital district
State and form of government
Constitution of 1991
Parliament (Parlamentul): House of Representatives (Camera Deputat; ilor) with 329 members; Senate (Senatul) with 136 members; Election every 4 years.
Direct election of the head of state every 5 years (one-time re-election). Right to
vote from 18 years.
Population: Romanians, last count 2011: 20,121,641 residents.
88.9% Romanians, 6.5% Hungarians, 3.3% Roma (S 1.2-2.5 million), 0.3% Ukrainians, 0.2% Germans, 0.1% Turks, 0.1% Russians, 0.1% Tatars; A total of 20 recognized national minorities
Proportion of foreigners 2017: 0.6%
Cities (with population): (As of 2011) Bucuresti (Bucharest) 1,883,425 inh., Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg) 324,576, Timisoara (Temeschburg) 319,279, Iasi (Jassy) 290,422, Constant; a (Konstanza) 283,872, Craiova 269,506, Brasov (Kronstadt) 253,200, Galat; i (Galatz) 249,432, Ploiesti 209,945, Oradea (Großwardein) 196,367, Braila 180,302, Arad 159,074, Pitesti 155,383, Sibiu (Hermannstadt) 147,245, Bacau 144,307
Religions: 87% Orthodox, 5% Catholics, 3% Reformed, 2% Pentecostals; Minorities of Greek Catholics, Baptists, Lutherans and others (as of 2006)
Languages: Romanian; Recognized minority languages: Hungarian, Ukrainian, German, Russian, Turkish, Serbian, Slovak, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Romani, Tatar, Greek, Polish, Italian, Yiddish, Armenian, Albanian, Macedonian, Ruthenian
Workers according to the
agricultural sector. 4%, industry 30%, business 66% (2017)
Unemployment (in% of all labor force): 2017: 4.9%
Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 1.1%
Foreign trade: Import: 85.3 billion euros (2017); Export: 70.6 billion euros (2017)
Temperate-continental transitional climate. The average temperatures in July are 22-23 ° C (15-16 ° C in the mountains), those in January are -3 ° C. The precipitation is 350mm per year in the eastern part of the country and 650mm per year in the western part.